Vzdrževanje kuhinjskih nožev

Povprečen kuhinjski nož v naših kuhinjah je ponavadi cenejši nož, kupljen v veleblagovnici. Znamka je neznana, a kvaliteto in tip jekla označuje napis "stainless". Zahvaljujoč TV prodaji so zelo popularni noži z žagico ali pa noži, ki prerežejo železni drog, opeko, paradižnik v zraku... Po daljši uporabi se rezilo teh nožev obrabi. Obraba je odvisna od kvalitete materijala, uporabe in vzdrževanja oziroma brušenja nožev. Spodnji odstavki so namenjeni pravilni uporabi in vzdrževanju kakršnega koli kuhinjskega noža z namenom podaljševanja njegove življenjske dobe in ostrine rezila.  

Redno ravnanje rezila

Pri tem gre za brusno palico, kot jo po navadi vidimo pri mesarju. Uporaba je zelo enostavna. Brusna palica ne brusi, ampak ravna samo konico z mikroskopskim odkrivljanjem in odstranjevanjem zavihkov in ostalih neravnin na rezilu. Predstavljate si lep raven papir. Če potegnete po robu, se lahko urežete. Ko ga zmečkate, ta rob (čeprav isto tanek in oster kot prej) ni več raven in ne morete se urezati. Pri kuhinjskemu nožu brusna palica ta rob ponovno poravna in rezilo je spet ostro. Ravnanje rezila vam bo vzelo točno 10 sekund. Bolj pogosto ravnamo, bolje je. Ko enkrat brusna palica ne deluje več, je čas za brušenje noža. Ostrina rezila na kuhinjskem nožu bo ob redni uporabi brusilne palice ostala dobra desetkrat dalj časa.  Paziti je treba le pri izbiri oziroma nakupu brusne palice. Grobe jeklene ali te, ki so priložene poleg poceni kuhinjskih setov, so neuporabne. Priporočam zelo fine jeklene, za evropske kuhinjske nože iz mehkejših jekel in brusne palice z diamantno prevleko oziroma keramične za boljše nože iz trših jekel. Za domačo uporabo najbolj priporočam cenejšo, fino keramično palico.

Nežnejša uporaba

Oster nož reže bolje, zato  za uporabo in rezanje ne boste potrebovali toliko sile. Za določene sestavine skoraj zadostuje že teža rezila, pri ostalih bo dovolj le minimalen pritisk. Ko režemo z manjšo uporabo sile, manj poškodujemo sestavine, smo natančnejši in težje se urežemo. Ko nož odreže sestavino, udari rezalno desko. Ti udarci vplivajo na ostrino rezila.

Uporaba deske za rezanje 

Nikoli ne režite na marmornem pultu, steklenem podstavku, keramičnem pekaču, jeklenem pladnju in ostalih podobnih površinah, ki niso namenjene rezanju. Uporabljajte profesionalne umetne ali lesene deske za rezanje, pri katerih so nožu bolj prijazne tiste, ki imajo letnice obrnjene navzgor, kot odrezan drevesni štor. Še nasvet pri uporabi rezalne deske: potrebujete vsaj dve deski; eno za surovo meso in ribe, drugo za zelenjavo in sadje. 

Ko na rezalni deski režemo zelenjavo, po navadi narezane koščke z rezilom kuhinjskega noža postrgamo iz deske v lonec. Nekaj mikronov tanka ostrina na rezilu je oblikovana tako, da se relativno dobro upira navpičnim pritiskom, v primeru strganja pa deluje na rezilo sila v prečni smeri in močno poškoduje rezilo. Kadar želite postrgati zelenjavo iz deske v lonec, rezilo obrnite in postrgajte s hrbtenico noža!

Redno brušenje

Velja še posej za tiste, ki znate brusiti sami. Redno brušenje je enostavnejše, vzame manj časa in odstranjuje veliko manj materiala. Po nekaj letih uporabe bo imel nož, ki je bil redno brušen, manj obrabljeno rezilo, kot nož, ki je bil nabrušen samo nekajkrat.

Uporaba pravega »tipa« noža

Občutljivo rezilo japonskega noža ni namenjeno sekanju kosti, odpiranju kokosa in ne uprabljamo ga namesto odpirača, izvijača, kladiva...

Čiščenje noža

Tudi če so vaši noži iz nerjavečega jekla, je sprotno čiščenje nujno. Puščanje umazanega mokrega noža dlje časa v umivalniku škodi rezilu. To velja še posebej za boljše nože, ki so označeni kot nerjaveči. Tudi ti niso popolnoma nerjaveči, temveč so odporni proti rji do določene mere. Preživeta noč v umivalniku lahko prinese žalosten rezultat.  Za čiščenje kuhinjskega noža ne uporabljajte pomivalnega stroja. Vroča voda, vroč zrak, agresivni pralni prašek in tolčenje ob ostalo kuhinjsko posodo škodi vsakemu kuhinjskemu nožu. Priporočam, da že med samo uporabo nož občasno obrišemo v krpo; delo s čistim nožem je lažje in varnejše, zato ga po končani uporabi splaknemo pod mlačno vodo in ga po potrebi nežno podrgnemo z gobico in praškom. Po pranju ga s čisto kuhinjsko krpo obrišemo in ga pustimo na kuhinjskem pultu še nekaj časa, da se popolnoma posuši preden ga shranimo. Če je kuhinjski nož iz jekla, v katerem je zelo malo ali nič kroma (Cr), ga pred shranjevanjem lahko  namažemo z oljem, ki ne vsebuje kislin (npr. sončnično olje).

Pravilno shranjevanje kuhinjskih nožev

Kuhinjskih nožev ne shranjujemo v predalu skupaj s kuhalnicami, zajemalkami in ostalimi kuhinjskimi pripomočki. V predalu se bodo delikatna rezila s premikanjem in drgnjenjem ob ostale stvari poškodovala, nevarno pa je tudi za vas, da se porežete med tem, ko nekaj iščete. Priporočamo lesena magnetna stojala, ki vam omogočajo, da imate kuhinjski nož shranjen varno na dosegu roke.

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Kitchen knife maintenance

An average kitchen knife we can find in our kitchens is usually a cheaper knife bought in a supermarket. The brand is unknown and the quality and type of steel is marked as "stainless". Thanks to TV shopping serrated blade knives or knives which cut iron poles, bricks, flying tomatoes etc. have become very popular. After a longer use blades of these knives become worn. The wear depends on the quality of the material, the use and the maintenance or sharpening of knives. The following paragraphs describe the correct use and maintenance of any kitchen knife, in order to extend its life span and the sharpness of its blade.                         

Regular blade straightening

A honing rod, similar to butcher’s steel, is used. The use is very simple. The honing steel does not hone, it just straightens the tip with microscopic realigning and removal of deformations on the blade. Imagine a nice, flat piece of paper. If you pass your finger over the edge of it you can cut yourself. When you crease it, the edge (although as thin and sharp as before) is not flat anymore and you cannot get cut. A honing steel straightens the edge of the kitchen knife blade and makes the blade sharp again. Blade straightening takes exactly 10 seconds of time. The more frequently knives are straightened the better it is. Once the honing steel does not function anymore, it is time to sharpen the knife. A kitchen knife blade remains sharp ten times longer if the honing steel is used regularly. It is only necessary to be careful in the choice and purchase of the honing steel. Coarse cut honing rod, or that added to cheap kitchen sets, is useless. I recommend a fine cut honing rod for European kitchen knives made of softer steel, and diamond coated or ceramic rod for better knives made of harder steel. For home use, I recommend above all a cheaper, fine cut, ceramic honing rod.     

Use of the cutting board

Never cut on a marble countertop, glass plate, ceramic baking tray, steel tray and other similar surfaces which were not designed for cutting. Use professional synthetic or wood cutting boards, of which the most knife-friendly are those with the growth rings turned upwards, similar to a cut tree stump. Some advice for the use of the cutting board: you need at least two cutting boards - one for raw meat and fish, and the other for vegetables and fruit.

Gentle use

A sharp knife cuts better, thus you will not need much force for using it or cutting with it. For certain ingredients the weight of the blade is almost enough, others require some minimum pressure. Using less force in cutting we damage the ingredients less, we are more precise and it is more difficult to get cut. When the knife cuts off a piece of an ingredient it strikes the cutting board. These strikes influence the sharpness of the blade.

Scraping

When we cut vegetables on a cutting board, we usually scrape the pieces off the board and into the pot using the blade of the kitchen knife. A few microns thick, the edge of the blade is designed so that it resists vertical pressure relatively well. In the case of scraping the force is applied transversely on the board, which is extremely damaging for the blade. If you want to scrape the vegetables off the board and into the pot turn the blade around and use the knife spine!

Regular sharpening

This is valid especially for those who are able to sharpen knives themselves. Regular sharpening is a lot easier, faster and it results in removal of much less material. After several years of use the knife which has been regularly sharpened will have a less worn blade than a knife which has been sharpened only occasionaly.

Use of the correct “type” of the knife

The sensitive blade of a Japanese knife has not been designed for cutting bones, opening coconuts and we do not use it instead of an opener, screwdriver, hammer, etc.

Cleaning the knife

If your knives are made of stainless steel, regular cleaning is essential. Leaving a dirty, wet knife in the sink for a longer period of time is harmful for its blade. This is especially true for better knives, which have been marked as stainless. They are not completely stainless, they are only corrosion-resistant to a certain level. Spending a night in the sink can have sad results. Do not use a dishwasher for washing kitchen knives. Hot water, hot air, aggressive detergents and beating against other dishes are harmful for any kitchen knife. I suggest to occasionally clean the knife with a cloth during its use; working with a clean knife is easier and safer, and after its use we can only rinse it under warm water, and if necessary gently rub it with a sponge and dishwashing detergent. After washing our kitchen knife we dry it with a clean cloth and before storing it we leave it on the kitchen counter for some time so as to let it dry completely. If the kitchen knife is made of steel with low or no chromium (Cr) content we can grease it with acid free oil (e.g. sunflower oil) before storing it.

Correct storage of kitchen knives

Kitchen knives are not supposed to be stored in drawers together with wooden spoons, ladles and other kitchen utensils. Moving around and rubbing against other utensils inside the drawer the delicate blades get damaged, and it is also dangerous for you, since you can get cut while looking for tools. We suggest wooden magnetic knife holders, which enable the storage of kitchen knives in a safe and handy place.

Arhiv člankov

Rezilo in človeška vrsta sta zelo trdno povezana skozi ves evolucijski razvoj. Druge vrste ne potrebujejo ostrin, saj so z njimi rojene.

Povprečen kuhinjski nož v naših kuhinjah je ponavadi cenejši nož, kupljen v veleblagovnici. Znamka je neznana, a kvaliteto in tip jekla označuje napis "stainless". Zahvaljujoč TV prodaji so zelo popularni noži z žagico ali pa noži, ki prerežejo železni drog, opeko, paradižnik v zraku...

Kako izbrati kuhinjski nož -  Oblika in materiali – Splošna pravila pri izbiri noža – Osnovne razlike med jekli – Prednosti rezil iz laminiranega jekla – Pred nakupom kuhinjskega noža

Japonski kuhinjski noži so se razvili iz enostavnega težkega rezila, podobnega debi, v mnogo dobro premišljenih oblik za točno določena opravila. V veliki klasični trio spadajo deba, usuba in yanagiba.

Japonski kuhinjski noži zahodnega tipa se od tradicionalnih japonskih kuhinjskih nožev razlikujejo po klasičnem zahodnem ročaju in po rezilu, ki je brušeno na obeh straneh.

Takšno obojestransko brušeno rezilo je močnejše od enostransko brušenega in primerno za levičarje in desničarje.

Kuhinjski nož je v svojem bistvu kos jekla z ročajem. Dober kuhinjski nož je iz dobrega jekla. Na kvalitetno jeklo je treba gledati kot na osnovo, potencial, ki ga s kovanjem, toplotno obdelavo in geometrijo rezila izkoristi le najbolj izkušen mojster.

Oster nož bo gladko prerezal sestavine. Top nož bo poškodoval stene celic mesa, zelenjave, ribe... S spreminjanjem teksture sestavin se spreminja tudi okus!